Temporal trends and changing profile of adults with congenital heart disease undergoing heart transplantation
Cohen Sarah, Houyel Lucile, Guillemain Romain, Varnous Shaida, Jannot Anne-Sophie, Ladouceur Magalie, Boudjemline Younes, Bonnet Damien, Iserin Laurence
AIMS: To investigate the temporal trends in profile and outcomes of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) undergoing heart transplantation (HT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of a multi-institutional series of 2257 HT from 1988 to 2012, 100 HT were performed in 97 ACHD. We evaluated clinical characteristics, underlying defect, surgical history, perioperative issues, and outcomes. We compared two eras: era 1 (1988-2005, n = 48) and era 2 (2006-2012, n = 49). Mean age at HT was 30.3 ± 10.5 years. Twenty-five patients (25.8%) had biventricular physiology with a systemic right ventricle and 43 patients (44%) had univentricular physiology. Adults with congenital heart disease severity were classified as great complexity (74.2%), moderate (21.7%), and simple (4.1%). During a median follow-up of 28.7 months [0-282], 44 patients died. Early mortality was high (34%; 95% CI 0.2536-0.4390). Survival was 63.9% at 1 year. The proportion of univentricular patients did not change. Biventricular patients with systemic right ventricle significantly increased in era 2 (16.7 vs. 34.7%, P = 0.04) due to increasing number of transposition of the great arteries with atrial switch. Although the proportion of great complexity ACHD did not change significantly in era 2 (81.6% vs. and 66.7% in era 1, P = 0.09), ACHD recipients have more advanced disease, being more likely hospitalized (P = 0.03), receiving intravenous inotropes (P = 0.01), under assist devices (P = 0.04), or UNOS status 1 (P = 0.02) at the time of HT. Survival rates were comparable. CONCLUSION: Despite a worse risk profile, mortality after HT in ACHD did not increase. Improving survival of complex CHD will probably amplify the proportion of complex ACHD recipients with more advanced disease.