Induction of resident memory T cells enhances the efficacy of cancer vaccine.
Nizard Mevyn, Roussel Helene, Diniz Mariana O., Karaki Soumaya, Tran Thi, Voron Thibault, Dransart Estelle, Sandoval Federico, Riquet Marc, Rance Bastien, Marcheteau Elie, Fabre Elizabeth, Mandavit Marion, Terme Magali, Blanc Charlotte, Escudie Jean-Baptiste, Gibault Laure, Barthes Francoise Le Pimpec, Granier Clemence, Ferreira Luis C. S., Badoual Cecile, Johannes Ludger, Tartour Eric
Tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) represent a new subset of long-lived memory T cells that remain in tissue and do not recirculate. Although they are considered as early immune effectors in infectious diseases, their role in cancer immunosurveillance remains unknown. In a preclinical model of head and neck cancer, we show that intranasal vaccination with a mucosal vector, the B subunit of Shiga toxin, induces local Trm and inhibits tumour growth. As Trm do not recirculate, we demonstrate their crucial role in the efficacy of cancer vaccine with parabiosis experiments. Blockade of TFGbeta decreases the induction of Trm after mucosal vaccine immunization, resulting in the lower efficacy of cancer vaccine. In order to extrapolate this role of Trm in humans, we show that the number of Trm correlates with a better overall survival in lung cancer in multivariate analysis. The induction of Trm may represent a new surrogate biomarker for the efficacy of cancer vaccine. This study also argues for the development of vaccine strategies designed to elicit them.