Successful treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa osteomyelitis with antibiotic monotherapy of limited duration

Laghmouche Nadir, Compain Fabrice, Jannot Anne-Sophie, Guigui Pierre, Mainardi Jean-Luc, Lonjon Guillaume, Bouyer Benjamin, Fernandez-Gerlinger Marie-Paule

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present a 15-year experience and provide a comprehensive analysis of a large cohort of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa osteomyelitis. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to a large French university hospital for P. aeruginosa osteomyelitis over a 15-year period. Patient outcome was assessed at follow-up after at least six months. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were included, comprising 57% with chronic osteomyelitis. Polymicrobial infection was predominant (63%), and an infected device was involved in 39% patients. The overall treatment success rate was 79.1%. All but one patient were treated with a combination of surgery and antibiotic therapy. The antibiotic treatment had a mean duration of 45 days (range, 21-90 days). Single-antibiotic therapy was preferred in nearly all cases. Treatment failure was reported for 14 (21%) patients and was due to the persistence of P. aeruginosa in four cases. No significant risk factor for treatment failure was identified, especially when treatment strategies were compared. CONCLUSIONS: We advocate optimal surgical debridement combined with initial parenteral antibiotics for a maximum of 15 days, followed by an oral fluoroquinolone. Total treatment duration should not exceed six weeks, and antibiotic treatment with two-drug combinations does not seem necessary.

2017. J. Infect.; 75(3):198-206
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