One-month apparent diffusion coefficient correlates with response to radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

Barat Maxime, Fohlen Audrey, Cassinotto Christophe, Jannot Anne Sophie, Dautry Raphael, Pelage Jean-Pierre, Boudiaf Mourad, Pocard Marc, Eveno Clarisse, Taouli Bachir, Soyer Philippe, Dohan Anthony

PURPOSE: To assess whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at 1 and 3 months after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may be associated with a favorable response to therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with HCC (n = 35) or liver metastases (n = 24) who underwent 1.5T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) at 1 and 3 months post-RFA were included. ADC values of patients with local tumor recurrence were compared to those without local recurrence. A subgroup analysis was performed for HCC and metastases. RESULTS: Thirty-eight HCC and 27 metastases were evaluated. The ADC value of HCC at 1 month after RFA was lower in recurrent tumors (0.957 ± 0.229 [SD] × 10(-3) mm(2) ) compared to tumors with complete response (1.414 ± 0.322 [SD] × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, P = 0.006). At multivariate analysis, ADC at 1 month was the single independent variable associated with recurrence for HCC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.860). No significant association was observed for liver metastases (P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: A low ADC value at 1 month after RFA is associated with an early local recurrence of HCC. This study does not confirm that such association exists for hepatic metastases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1648-1658.

2017. J Magn Reson Imaging; 45(6):1648-1658
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